Introduction: Psychiatric/psychosocial rehabilitation (PSR) aims to facilitate the recovery of people with
serious mental illness (SMI), and consists of enhancing and maintaining adaptive skills and supports of people with SMI
so that they can be satisfied and successful in their environments of choice. The objective of our paper is to review PSR in
relation to various health care environments, specifically in relation to mental, substance use-related, physical (medical
and dental), and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) health care environments. The primary questions we
pose for this review are: 1. What are PSR and related practices regarding these health care environments? 2. What are PSR
outcomes regarding these health care environments? 3. What are predictors of these outcomes?
Method: Data collection consisted of a systematic review of PSR in relation to these health care environments. Data
analysis consisted of a narrative review (a meta-analysis was not conducted due to the wide diversity of PSR practices and
outcome measures found).
Results: PSR is effective in relation to mental health care environments and is promising in relation to substance userelated
and physical (medical and dental) health care environments. There is no rigorous study of PSR in relation to CAM
health care environments.
Conclusion: PSR in relation to health care environments is helpful for people with SMI. Further research on PSR in
general, and in relation to CAM health care environments in particular, is needed.