MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which mainly inhibit protein expression by targeting the 3’UTR (untranslated region)
of mRNAs, are known to play various roles in the pathogenesis of many different types of diseases. Specifically, in bone
diseases, recent emphasis has been placed on the involvement of miRNAs in the differentiation and proliferation of bone
and cartilage cells, particularly with regards to how these mechanisms contribute to bone homeostasis. In this review, we
summarize miRNAs that are important in the differentiation and proliferation of bone cells, and specific miRNAs associated
with bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. This review also provides the perspective
that miRNA studies will identify not only new mechanisms in basic bone research, but also potential novel diagnostic
biomarkers and drug targets for bone diseases.
Keywords: Chondrocytes, microRNAs, osteoarthritis, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteocytes, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis.
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