Nano-structured titania (TiO2) has received considerable attention in the field of biomedical research because of its numerous
advantages and few health concerns. To produce good biocompatible biomaterial, we synthesized different structural nano-TiO2 and
TiO2–chitosan (CH) nanocomposite by precipitation, hydrothermal, and in situ sol–gel methods. The prepared samples were characterized
comprehensively. Nano-TiO2 prepared by precipitation and hydrothermal methods (sintered at 673 K) showed an anatase phase with
spherical morphology, whereas precipitation at 393 K confirmed amorphous phase. In situ synthesized composites were amorphous and
had irregular morphology. The samples were further analyzed for in vitro bioactivity, antibacterial activity, and cytotoxicity. The characterization
after bioactivity study confirmed formation of stoichiometric ratio of hydroxyapatite on TiO2–CH nanocomposite compared
with other TiO2 samples. No significant cytotoxic effect of all the samples on gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) human cell line was observed.
This study shows that method of synthesis has no significant effect on the bioactivity and antibacterial activity, whereas it influences
cytotoxicity. However, TiO2–CH nanocomposite has an important function in conferring better biocompatibility. Thus, TiO2-based
polymer composites prepared with appropriate synthesis methods are recommended for implant and tissue engineering applications.
Keywords: Titania, titania–chitosan, cytotoxicity, biocompatibility, antibacterial activity, in vitro bioactivity.
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