Roadmap to Cellular Reprogramming – Manipulating Transcriptional Networks with DNA, RNA, Proteins and Small Molecules

Author(s): P. Worsdorfer, M. Thier, A. Kadari, F. Edenhofer.

Journal Name: Current Molecular Medicine

Volume 13 , Issue 5 , 2013

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Abstract:

Recent reports demonstrate that the plasticity of mammalian somatic cells is much higher than previously assumed and that ectopic expression of transcription factors may have the potential to induce the conversion of any cell type into another. Fibroblast cells can be converted into embryonic stem cell-like cells, neural cells, cardiomyocytes, macrophage-like cells as well as blood progenitors. Additionally, the conversion of astrocytes into neurons or neural stem cells into monocytes has been demonstrated. Nowadays, in the era of systems biology, continuously growing holistic data sets are providing increasing insights into core transcriptional networks and cellular signaling pathways. This knowledge enables cell biologists to understand how cellular fate is determined and how it could be manipulated. As a consequence for biomedical applications, it might be soon possible to convert patient specific somatic cells directly into desired transplantable other cell types. The clinical value, however, of such reprogrammed cells is currently limited due to the invasiveness of methods applied to induce reprogramming factor activity. This review will focus on experimental strategies to ectopically induce cell fate modulators. We will emphasize those strategies that enable efficient and robust overexpression of transcription factors by minimal genetic alterations of the host genome. Furthermore, we will discuss procedures devoid of any genomic manipulation, such as the direct delivery of mRNA, proteins, or the use of small molecules. By this, we aim to give a comprehensive overview on state of the art techniques that harbor the potential to generate safe reprogrammed cells for clinical applications.

Keywords: Cell lineage conversion, cell-penetrating peptide, cre/loxP recombination, factor-free iPS cell, protein transduction, reprogramming, small molecule, transposon, viral transduction.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 13
ISSUE: 5
Year: 2013
Page: [868 - 878]
Pages: 11
DOI: 10.2174/1566524011313050017
Price: $58

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