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Current Medicinal Chemistry
ISSN (Print): 0929-8673
ISSN (Online): 1875-533X
VOLUME: 20
ISSUE: 18
DOI: 10.2174/0929867311320180004      Price:  $58









Antioxidant Food Supplements and Obesity-Related Inflammation

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Author(s): H. Mangge, K. Summers, G. Almer, R. Prassl, D. Weghuber, W. Schnedl and D. Fuchs
Pages 2330-2337 (8)
Abstract:
The obesity prevalence is growing worldwide and largely responsible for the increased incidence of cardiovascular disease, the most common cause of death in the western world. Excessive food intake along with insufficient physical exercise is the basic impetus for this development. The obese state is commonly associated with an increase in leptin levels and chronic immune-mediated inflammation. Despite high leptin levels, the leptin response, normally associated with satiety and satiation, seems to be impaired and individuals continue to consume calorie-rich food. Antioxidant food additives such as sodium sulphite, sodium benzoate and curcumin were shown to suppress the leptin release in lipopolysaccharide- treated murine adipocytes. Based on this, we hypothesize that the insufficient leptin release, caused by excessive consumption of food additives, may lead to a reduced exposure of the central nervous system to leptin and ultimately propagate obesity. On the other hand, leptin has been shown to favor Th1-type activity, which ultimately decreases tryptophan levels. Tryptophan derivatives, serotonin and melatonin, induce satiety/satiation through several mechanisms. In this context, the antioxidant suppression of leptin release and Th1-type activity is beneficial to increase serotonin and melatonin levels. The molecules in the mechanism described in this review are highly integrated in the reward system, and have been implicated in the addiction behavior of obesity. Based on these facts, the involvement of antioxidant food supplements in the mechanisms of the reward-deficiency syndrome which perpetuates obesity will be discussed.
Keywords:
Antioxidants, obesity, inflammation, oxidative stress, food supplements, leptin, Th1, tryptophan, serotonin, melatonin.
Affiliation:
Research Unit on Lifestyle and Inflammation-associated Risk Biomarkers, Clinical Institute of Medical and Chemical Laboratory Diagnosis, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 30, 8036 Graz, Austria.