Neuropeptides and Epitheliopeptides: Structural and Functional Diversity in an Ancestral Metazoan Hydra

Author(s): Toshio Takahashi.

Journal Name: Protein & Peptide Letters

Volume 20 , Issue 6 , 2013

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Abstract:

Peptides are known to play important developmental and physiological roles in signaling. The rich diversity of peptides, with functions as diverse as intercellular communication, neurotransmission and signaling that spatially and temporally controls axis formation and cell differentiation, hints at the wealth of information passed between interacting cells. Little is known about peptides that control developmental processes such as cell differentiation and pattern formation in metazoans. The cnidarian Hydra is one of the most basic metazoans and is a key model system for study of the peptides involved in these processes. We developed a novel peptidomic approach for the isolation and identification of functional peptide signaling molecules from Hydra (the Hydra Peptide Project). Over the course of this project, a wide variety of novel neuropeptides were identified. Most of these peptides act directly on muscle cells and their functions include induction of contraction and relaxation. Some peptides are involved in cell differentiation and morphogenesis. Moreover, epitheliopeptides that are produced by epithelial cells were originally identified in Hydra. Some of these epitheliopeptides exhibit morphogen-like activities, whereas others are involved in regulating neuron differentiation, possibly through neuron-epithelial cell interactions. We also describe below our high-throughput reverse-phase nano-flow LCMALDI- TOF-MS/MS approach, which has proved a powerful tool for the discovery of novel peptide signaling molecules in Hydra.

Keywords: Cnidaria, epitheliopeptides, Hydra, LC-MALDI-TOF-MS/MS morphogenesis, neuron differentiation, neuropeptides.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 20
ISSUE: 6
Year: 2013
Page: [671 - 680]
Pages: 10
DOI: 10.2174/0929866511320060006
Price: $65

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