Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive, irreversible, and usually fatal interstitial lung
disease of unknown cause [1, 2]. The aetiology of IPF is unknown, although identified risk factors for IPF include
cigarette smoking, environmental exposures, microbial agents, age, male gender and gastroesophageal reflux disease
(GERD). Genetic factors may also play a role in the aetiology of IPF as familial cases of IPF are described in
approximately 5% of patients with IPF . Nothing has shown significant anti-fibrotic activity in IPF patients and due to
this high unmet medical need, numerous therapeutics are currently under clinical investigation. In this review, we shall
focus on recombinant protein based approaches for the treatment of IPF, with a particular focus on pathophysiology of
lung fibrosis using the bleomycin mouse model.