The octapeptide angiotensin II (Ang II) plays a homeostatic role in the regulation of blood pressure and water and electrolyte
balance, and also contributes to the progression of cardiovascular remodeling. Ang II activates Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor and type 2
(AT2) receptor, both of which belong to the seven-transmembrane, G protein-coupled receptor family. Most of the actions of Ang II such
as promotion of cellular prolifaration, hypertrophy, and fibrosis are mediated by AT1 receptor. However, in some pathological situations,
AT2 receptor shows an increase in tissue expression and functions to antagonize the actions induced by AT1 receptor. Recent studies have
advanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying receptor activation and signal transduction of AT1 and AT2 receptor
in the cardiovascular system.
Keywords: Angiotensin II, mechanical stress, receptor dimerization, renin-angiotensin system, signal transduction.
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