Periodontitis is an inflammatory condition affecting teeth resulting in progressive destruction of periodontal
ligaments, resorption of alveolar bone and loss of teeth. Treatment of periodontitis includes surgical and non surgical
management. Systemic antibiotics are also used for the treatment of periodontitis. The aim of this research was to formulate
smart gel system of azithromycin (AZT) and to evaluate in vitro and in vivo for non-surgical treatment of chronic periodontitis.
Azithromycin dihydrate, used systemically in the treatment of periodontitis, was formulated into smart gels using
biodegradable, thermosensitive polymer Pluronic® F-127 (PF-127) and Hydroxy Ethyl Cellulose (HEC) as copolymer.
The prepared smart gels were evaluated for sterility, content uniformity, gelation temperature and time, syringeability,
rheological behavior, in vitro diffusion and in vivo efficacy in human patients. The prepared smart gels were clear
and transparent, sterile, thermoresponsive and injectable. Viscosity of gels increased with increase in concentration of
polymer/co-polymer and also with temperature. They gelled in short response time below the body temperature. In vitro
release studies showed controlled drug release which was influenced significantly by the properties and concentration of
PF-127 and HEC. In vivo efficacy studies showed a significant improvement (p<0.001) in clinical parameters such as gingival
index, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, bleeding index and plaque index. The developed azithromycin
smart gel system is a novel approach for the treatment of chronic periodontitis since it reduces the dose and side effects,
bypasses the usual surgical procedures and improves patient compliance.