Drug Metabolism Letters

Zhiyang Zhao
Amgen
Cambridge, MA
USA

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Evaluation of Micronuclei Induction Capacity and Mutagenicity of Organochlorine and Organophosphate Pesticides

Author(s): Santosh K. Yaduvanshi, Nalini Srivastava, Francesco Marotta, Shalini Jain, Hariom Yadav.

Abstract:

The genotoxic and mutagenic effects of two commonly used organochlorine pesticides, lindane (LND) and endosulfan (ENS), and two commonly used organophosphate pesticides, chlorpyrifos (CPF) and monocrotophos (MCP) were assessed using in vivo mouse bone marrow micronucleus test and in vitro Ames Salmonella/ microsome mutagenicity test. The results showed that these pesticides alone or in combination, induced significantly high frequency of micronuclei (MN) formation that increased with concentration of pesticides. All these four pesticides produced significant increase in the frequencies of micronucleated-polychromatic erythrocytes (MN-PCE) and decrease in frequencies of PCE in dose-dependent manner. The results indicate the suppression of proliferative activity of the bone marrow and increase in the extent of cell death. ENS and MCP showed mutagenic potential in Salmonella/ microsome assay. ENS induced mutagenic and nontoxic response only in TA98 tester strain of S.typhimurium at the dose of 500 μg /plate and in the absence of metabolic activation. MCP showed weak mutagenic and nontoxic effect only in TA100 tester strain at the dose of 5000 μg/plate in both assays, with or without metabolic activation when compared with negative control. MCP was toxic in TA98 tester strain at the dose of 5000 μg/plate in absence of metabolic activation while reduction in toxicity was seen on addition of S9 mixture. The study clearly showed the genotoxic potential of all these four pesticides and mutagenic response of endosulfan and monocrotophos.

Keywords: Genotoxicity of pesticides, mutagenicity of pesticides, micronucleus test, Ames test, chlorpyrifos, monocrotophos, lindane, endosulfan.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 6
ISSUE: 3
Year: 2012
Page: [187 - 197]
Pages: 11
DOI: 10.2174/1872312811206030006
Price: $58