Current Cancer Drug Targets

Ruiwen Zhang 
Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center
1300 Coulter Drive
Amarillo, TX 79106
USA

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Roles of EGFR, PI3K, AKT, and mTOR in Heavy Metal-Induced Cancer

Author(s): Richard L. Carpenter, Bing-Hua Jiang.

Abstract:

Humans are exposed to heavy metals through a variety of occupational and non-occupational means. Growing evidence has accumulated that prolonged exposure to these heavy metals is associated with cancer occurrence at various body sites including lung, liver, bladder, colon, and skin. Much research effort has been placed on discovering the mechanisms by which heavy metals induce different kinds of cancers. Results from these mechanistic studies have varied for different metals, but increased activation of signaling pathways is often observed. This review will focus on the signaling molecules including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase (PI3K), AKT, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in carcinogenesis and cancer progression; and how these molecules are affected by the exposure to heavy metals: arsenic, chromium, nickel, and cadmium. Furthermore, drug targets for the prevention and therapy of cancers induced by heavy metals will be discussed with a focus on drugs that are currently in clinical trials for these targets.

Keywords: AKT, Arsenic, cadmium, cancer, chromium, EGFR, mTOR, nickel, PI3K, p70S6K1

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Article Details

VOLUME: 13
ISSUE: 3
Year: 2013
Page: [252 - 266]
Pages: 15
DOI: 10.2174/1568009611313030004
Price: $58