Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome: Emerging Concepts and Novel Therapeutic Targets

Author(s): Ashish K. Rehni, Amteshwar S. Jaggi, Nirmal Singh.

Journal Name: CNS & Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets

Volume 12 , Issue 1 , 2013

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Abstract:

Opioid withdrawal syndrome is a debilitating manifestation of opioid dependence and responds poorly to the available clinical therapies. Studies from various in vivo and in vitro animal models of opioid withdrawal syndrome have led to understanding of its pathobiology which includes complex interrelated pathways leading to adenylyl cyclase superactivation based central excitation. Advancements in the elucidation of opioid withdrawal syndrome mechanisms have revealed a number of key targets that have been hypothesized to modulate clinical status. The present review discusses the neurobiology of opioid withdrawal syndrome and its therapeutic target recptors like calcitonin gene related peptide receptors (CGRP), N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, gamma aminobutyric acid receptors (GABA), G-proteingated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels and calcium channels. The present review further details the potential role of second messengers like calcium (Ca2+) / calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII), nitric oxide synthase, cytokines, arachidonic acid metabolites, corticotropin releasing factor, fos and src kinases in causing opioid withdrawal syndrome. The exploitation of these targets may provide effective therapeutic agents for the management of opioid dependence-induced abstinence syndrome.

Keywords: Opioid dependence, opioid withdrawal syndrome, adenylyl cyclase superactivation, pharmacological interventions

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Article Details

VOLUME: 12
ISSUE: 1
Year: 2013
Page: [112 - 125]
Pages: 14
DOI: 10.2174/1871527311312010017

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