Copper and Heme-Mediated Abeta Toxicity: Redox Chemistry, Abeta Oxidations and Anti-ROS Compounds
Stefan Chassaing, Fabrice Collin, Pierre Dorlet, Jerome Gout, Christelle Hureau and Peter Faller
Affiliation: CNRS, LCC (Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination), 205 route de Narbonne, BP 44099, F-31077 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France).
Oxidative stress mediated by reactive oxygen or nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) seems to be implicated in several
diseases including neurodegenerative ones. In one of them, namely Alzheimer’s disease, there is a large body of evidence
that the aggregation of the peptide amyloid-beta (Abeta) is implicated in the generation of the oxidative stress. Redox active
metal ions play a key role in oxidative stress, either in the production of ROS/RNS by enzymes or loosely bound metals
or in the protection against ROS, mostly as catalytic centers in enzymes. In Alzheimer’s disease, it is thought that metals
(mostly Cu, Fe and heme) can bind to amyloid-beta and that such systems are involved in the generation of oxidative
stress. In the present article, we review the role of ROS/RNS produced by redox active Cu ions and heme compounds in
the context of the amyloid cascade. We focus on (i) the coordination chemistry of Cu and heme to Abeta; (ii) the role of
the corresponding Abeta adducts in the (catalytic) production of ROS/RNS; (iii) the subsequent degradation of Abeta by
these reactive species and (iv) the use of antioxidants, in particular metal sequestering compounds and direct antioxidants
like polyphenols as a therapeutic strategies.
Keywords: Amyloid-beta, copper, heme, chelators, antioxidants, polyphenols
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