In orthopaedic tissue engineering, scaffolds may be viewed as a substitute for the extra-cellular matrix. Factors
that contribute to an ideal scaffold include strength, degradation rate, porosity, surface property and immune response.
Scaffolds may be composed of natural or synthetic polymers, each with its advantages and disadvantages. Composite
scaffolds are utilised to alleviate the inherent issues with natural polymers whilst maintaining its benefits as well. This article
reviews biomaterials and scaffolds in orthopaedic tissue engineering and covers clinical applications of scaffolds
with particular emphasis on bone and cartilage tissue engineering.
Keywords: Biomaterials, orthopaedics, scaffolds, tissue engineering
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