Ionic liquids (ILs) are excellent media for the generation and stabilisation of metallic nanoparticles (NPs). Their ionic character
coupled with 3-D structural pre-organisation in the liquid state, serves to direct the growth of transition metal NPs generated in situ,
and to subsequently protect and stabilise them. Until now, many different NPs have been successfully synthesised within these media,
however much attention has been paid to Ru-NPs. These have been prepared with small sizes and narrow size distributions by reduction
of organometallic compounds with molecular hydrogen as well as decomposition of transition-metal complexes in the zero-valent state.
These stable Ru-NPs immobilised in the ILs have proven to be efficient green catalysts for several reactions in multiphase conditions, including
important energy-related processes such as biomass refinement. Furthermore, they present potential novel materials for use in the
production of smarter electronic devices. In this review, the synthesis, stabilisation and size-control of Ru-NPs via various methods in
different ILs is discussed, followed by their varied application in catalysis and potential in new fields.