The response of the body to cancer is not a unique mechanism and has many parallels with inflammation and
wound healing. Unresolved inflammation generates a microenvironment favorable for cellular transformation and the
growth of cancer cells. Chronic tissue damage triggers a repair response that includes the production of growth factors, cytokines
and chemokines. Cytokines and chemokines have a crucial role in cancer-related inflammation with consequent,
direct and indirect effects on the proliferative and invasive properties of tumor cells. In view of the multifactorial functions
of cytokines and chemokines in tumorigenesis, the elucidation of their roles will further advance our understanding
of the patho-physiological processes of tumor development and highlights potential innovative anti-cancer strategies.
Despite recent advances, main anti-cancer therapies, namely surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy, are limited in
their ability to treat minimal and metastatic residual disease. Furthermore, the benefit of conventional therapies is often
limited by collateral damage to normal tissues. Immunotherapy is a new avenue of cancer treatment being investigated by
researchers and clinicians for different cancer types.
The aim of this paper is to analyze the recent patents and scientific reviews on the major cytokine/chemokine pathways
involved in cancer immunotherapy and discuss their basic biology, clinical relevance and potential directions for future
anti-cancer therapeutic applications.