Tungstate sulfuric acid (TSA) as a solid acid catalyst has been synthesized and used in Paal–Knorr synthesis of
some novel and known pyrroles under solvent-free conditions. Catalyst loadings can be as low as 1 mol % to give high
yields of the corresponding pyrroles at 60 °C. To make the catalyst, sodium tungstic reacted with chlorosulfonic acid in nhexane.
Keywords: Catalyst, Paal–Knorr, pyrroles, solid acid, solvent-free, tungstate sulfuric acid, byproducts, TSA, temperatures, molar ratio, 2, 5-hexadione
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