G-Protein Coupled Receptor Resensitization - Appreciating the Balancing Act of Receptor Function

Author(s): Maradumane L. Mohan , Neelakantan T. Vasudevan , Manveen K. Gupta , Elizabeth E. Martelli , Sathyamangla V. Naga Prasad .

Journal Name: Current Molecular Pharmacology

Volume 5 , Issue 3 , 2012

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Abstract:

G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are seven transmembrane receptors that are pivotal regulators of cellular responses including vision, cardiac contractility, olfaction, and platelet activation. GPCRs have been a major target for drug discovery due to their role in regulating a broad range of physiological and pathological responses. GPCRs mediate these responses through a cyclical process of receptor activation (initiation of downstream signals), desensitization (inactivation that results in diminution of downstream signals), and resensitization (receptor reactivation for next wave of activation). Although these steps may be of equal importance in regulating receptor function, significant advances have been made in understanding activation and desensitization with limited effort towards resensitization. Inadequate importance has been given to resensitization due to the understanding that resensitization is a homeostasis maintaining process and is not acutely regulated. Evidence indicates that resensitization is a critical step in regulating GPCR function and may contribute towards receptor signaling and cellular responses. In light of these observations, it is imperative to discuss resensitization as a dynamic and mechanistic regulator of GPCR function. In this review we discuss components regulating GPCR function like activation, desensitization, and internalization with special emphasis on resensitization. Although we have used β-adrenergic receptor as a proto-type GPCR to discuss mechanisms regulating receptor function, other GPCRs are also described to put forth a view point on the universality of such mechanisms.

Keywords: β-adrenergic receptors, β-arrestin, desensitization, G-protein coupled receptor kinases, G-protein coupled receptors, inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (I2PP2A), internalization, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, protein phosphatase 2A, recycling, resensitization.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 5
ISSUE: 3
Year: 2012
Page: [350 - 361]
Pages: 12
DOI: 10.2174/1874467211205030004
Price: $58

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