Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown etiology, presenting a dense
mucosal infiltration of eosinophils that is not reversible with proton pump inhibitor therapy. Endoscopy has reported EoE
commonly polymorphous disease with subtle mucosal changes, accompanied by variations in the caliber of the esophagus.
The suggestion of EoE as an allergic disease is still short of evidence and recently, it has only been confirmed that the
esophagus mucosal layer infiltrated by eosinophils may determine an association with allergy after exposure to allergens.
A comprehensive review of symptoms, risk factors, diagnoses and mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of EoE was
carried out, with an analysis of the different treatment options available for this disease firmly maximizing in incidence
and prevalence. The management of EoE is multidisciplinary and can involve gastroenterologists, pathologists, allergists
and dietitians, particularly in pediatric patients, because dietary food restrictions appear to be more beneficial in children
versus adults. EoE can successfully be treated with topical corticosteroids, which eliminate the clinical manifestations and
histological lesions in most cases. Prolonged treatment is advised for EoE because it recurs frequently, particularly on
discontinuation of therapy. Experimental treatments using immunotherapy are being investigated, but their safety and
efficacy are yet to be defined.
Keywords: Budesonide, corticosteroids, endoscopy, eosinophilic esophagitis, fluticasone propionate, immunoallergy,
monoclonal antibodies, inflammatory disease, immunotherapy, pediatric patients
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