Patients with human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV)-infection have a high prevalence of abnormal bone
metabolism and vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D treatment has some benefit in patients with HIV infection. In this paper,
we review the evidence for an association between vitamin D and HIV infection. Literature search was done from
Medline. Genetic studies have provided the opportunity to determine which proteins link vitamin D to HIV pathology
[i.e., the major histocompatibility complex class II molecules, vitamin D receptor, cytochrome P450, renin-angiotensin
system, apolipoprotein E, liver X receptor, toll-like receptor, poly(ADP-ribosyl) polymerase-1, natural resistanceassociated
macrophage protein 1, and the Sp1 promoter gene]. Vitamin D also exerts its effect on HIV through nongenomic
factors, i.e., ultraviolet radiation exposure, matrix metalloproteinase, heme oxygenase-1, the prostaglandins,
cyclooxygenase-2, and oxidative stress.
In conclusion, vitamin D may have a beneficial role in HIV. Calcitriol, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 should be tested in
HIV-infected population because of its active form of the vitamin D3 metabolite and modulates inflammatory cytokine
expression. Further investigation with calcitriol in HIV is needed.