Before and After Preeclampsia: What Biomarkers are there?
Preeclampsia is now recognized as a risk factor for developing cardiovascular and renal disease in the mother
later in life. Recently, certain substances have been identified, that are be either over- or under-expressed in patients with
preeclampsia. One of these biomarkers that is over-expressed in the maternal blood is a soluble VEGF receptor, sFlt1.
During the first third trimester of that pregnancies which will evolve in preeclampsia, sFtl1 is higher compared to normal;
this increase correlates positively with the severity of the disease and decreases significantly after the birth.
It has also been demonstrated that a soluble form of endoglin is produced and released into the maternal circulation in
women with preeclampsia. This substance is capable of inhibiting the endothelial effects of TGF β 1. It is consistently
elevated in women that will develop preeclampsia.
Recently two other early markers have been studied: neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and pregnancyassociated
plasma protein A (PAPP-A). The serum concentrations of NGAL appear to be higher in preeclampsia as
compared to normal pregnancies and significant differences are seen in each trimester. Decreased levels of PAPP-A in the
first trimester appear to be a sensitive marker for early onset preeclampsia in which placental damage occurs. In this
review we try to give a look to this pathology and to the biomarkers that might be involved.
Keywords: Ngal, preeclampsia, PAPPA-A, m-RNA, cardiovascular and renal disease, RISK FACTORS IN PREMATURE INFANTS, serum concentrations, pregnancies
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