Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics and Clinical Use of Valganciclovir in Newborns with Symptomatic Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection

Author(s): Mauro Stronati, Giuseppina Lombardi, Francesca Garofoli, Paola Villani, Mario Regazzi.

Journal Name: Current Drug Metabolism

Volume 14 , Issue 2 , 2013

Abstract:

Congenital cytomegalovirus infection is the most common cause of nonhereditary sensorineural hearing loss and an important cause of psychomotor retardation. Newborns suffering from symptomatic congenital cytomegalovirus infection have been typically treated with i.v. ganciclovir (GCV). Nowadays valganciclovir (V-GCV), a mono-valyl ester pro-drug of GCV, is available as an oral syrup. The existing literature demonstrated that V-GCV is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and is rapidly converted into GCV in the intestinal wall and liver. The mechanism of antiviral action is the same that has been described for GCV. All these characteristics make this formulation particularly suitable for the symptomatic congenitally infected newborns. In neonates, V-GCV oral formulation proved stable and constant GVC plasma concentrations, in the suggested therapeutic range. The syrup demonstrated to be clinically effective and well tolerated and to be appropriate for a prolonged post-discharge therapy avoiding the discomfort of hospitalization, reducing the risk for nosocomial infections and decreasing the cost for the National Health Service. This article reviews all the available literature about V-GCV syrup in the treatment of newborns and infants with congenital CMV infection with the regard to pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamic properties and clinical use, focussing on new data and on our experience.

Keywords: Congenital cytomegalovirus infection, newborn, valganciclovir, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, clinical use, Symptomatic Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection, GCV, CNS, anti-CMV, varicella-zoster virus, Cytotoxic drugs, PEPTIDE TRANSPORTERS

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Article Details

VOLUME: 14
ISSUE: 2
Year: 2013
Page: [208 - 215]
Pages: 8
DOI: 10.2174/1389200211314020009
Price: $58

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