Neural Stem Cells: From Neurobiology to Clinical Applications

Author(s): Christian Andressen.

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology

Volume 14 , Issue 1 , 2013

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Abstract:

In spite of increasing numbers of publications about cell replacement therapies in various neurodegenerative diseases, reports on therapeutic benefits are still rare due to the huge array of parameters affecting the clinically relevant outcome. Limiting conditions can be attributed to origin and number of cells used for transplantation, their in vitro storage, propagation and/or predifferentiation. In addition, the ability of these cells for a site directed differentiation and functional integration in sufficient numbers is known to depend on extrinsic factors including intracerebral position of graft(s). Thus, obstacles to the use of cells in replacement therapies of neurological disorders reflect the molecular as well as cellular complexity of affected functional systems. This review will highlight central aspects of cell replacement strategies that are currently regarded as the most limiting issues in respect to survival, cell identity and site directed differentiation as well as functional integration of grafts. Special attention will be paid to neural stem cells, derived from either fetal or adult central nervous tissue. Unravelling the molecular biology of these proliferating cells in combination with instructive environmental cues for their site directed differentiation will pave the way to high reproducibility in collection, propagation, and predifferentiation of transplantable cells in vitro. In addition, this knowledge of intrinsic and extrinsic cues for a site directed neural differentiation during development will broaden the perspective for any pluripotent stem cell, namely embryonic stem and induced pluripotent stem cells, as an alternate source for a cell based therapy of neurodegenerative diseases.

Keywords: Neural stem cells, parkinson´s disease, regeneration, transplantation

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Article Details

VOLUME: 14
ISSUE: 1
Year: 2013
Page: [20 - 28]
Pages: 9
DOI: 10.2174/1389201011314010005

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