Mast cells are critical effectors in inflammatory diseases, including cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and their associated
complications. These cells exert their physiological and pathological activities by releasing granules containing histamine, cytokines,
chemokines, and proteases, including mast cell-specific chymases and tryptases. Several recent human and animal studies have shown direct
or indirect participation of mast cell-specific proteases in atherosclerosis, abdominal aortic aneurysms, obesity, diabetes, and their
complications. Animal studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of highly selective and potent chymase and tryptase inhibitors in
several experimental cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. In this review, we summarize recent discoveries from in vitro cell-based
studies to experimental animal disease models, from protease knockout mice to treatments with recently developed selective and potent
protease inhibitors, and from patients with preclinical disorders to those affected by complications. We hypothesize that inhibition of
chymases and tryptases would benefit patients suffering from cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.
Keywords: Mast cell, chymase, tryptase, atherosclerosis, abdominal aortic aneurysms, obesity, diabetes.
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