The theory of cancer stem cells (CSCs) has provided evidence on fundamental clinical implications because of
the involvement of CSCs in cell migration, invasion, metastasis, and treatment resistance, which leads to the poor clinical
outcome of cancer patients. Therefore, targeting CSCs will provide a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment and/or
prevention of tumors. However, the regulation of CSCs and its signaling pathways during tumorigenesis are not well understood.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been proved to act as key regulators of the post-transcriptional regulation of genes,
which involve in a wide array of biological processes including tumorigenesis. The altered expressions of miRNAs are associated
with poor clinical outcome of patients diagnosed with a variety of tumors. Therefore, emerging evidence strongly
suggest that miRMAs play critical roles in tumor development and progression. Emerging evidence also suggest that
miRNAs participate in the regulation of tumor cell growth, migration, invasion, angiogenesis, drug resistance, and metastasis.
Moreover, miRNAs such as let-7, miR-21, miR-22, miR-34, miR-101, miR-146a, and miR-200 have been found to
be associated with CSC phenotype and function mediated through targeting oncogenic signaling pathways. In this article,
we will discuss the role of miRNAs in the regulation of CSC phenotype and function during tumor development and progression.
We will also discuss the potential role of naturally occurring agents (nutraceuticals) as potent anti-tumor agents
that are believed to function by targeting CSC-related miRNAs.