There is an increasing global trend in cardiometabolic disorders being a leading cause of morbidity and mortality.
Adverse dietary habits and sedentary lifestyles contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes mellitus
(DM). Dietary nutrients in nuts have attracted attention in recent literature due to their beneficial effects on CVD by attenuating
lipid profiles, inflammation and oxidative stress. There is well-established evidence of the pharmacological
properties of micronutrients that render them therapeutically effective in chronic inflammatory diseases. Although caution
should be exercised in using antioxidant supplementation, antioxidant foods as dietary components play an important role
in the management of cardiometabolic disorders. There is documented evidence of disease-modifying effects of nutritional
compounds with anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. They have specific applications in ameliorating oxidative
stress- induced inflammatory diseases such as DM and CVD. It is relevant that dietary components that influence risk
of DM, have similar effects on inflammatory biomarkers of cardiovascular risk. Polyphenolic compounds such as flavonoids,
isoflavones, phenolic acids and lignan contribute to increased plasma antioxidant capacity, decreased oxidative stress
markers and reduced total and LDL cholesterol. They modulate genes associated with metabolism, stress defence, detoxification
and transporter proteins. Their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions have specific applications for pathologies
associated with chronic low-grade systemic inflammation that underpins progression of DM and CVD. Mechanisms
involved depend on the structure of the compound, redox status of the inflammatory milieu and other interactions. Bioactive
phytochemicals play an important therapeutic role in attenuating oxidative damage induced by metabolic syndrome
associated with atherogenic dyslipidaemia and a pro-inflammatory, pro-thrombotic state, at a sub-cellular level. It would
be critical to formulate optimal proportions and their combinations for therapeutic efficacy, based on synergistic interactions.
Some of these mechanisms and potential actions are discussed.
Keywords: Oxidative stress, antioxidants, nutri-targeting, inflammation, cardiometabolic diseases, cardiometabolic disorders, dietary habits, sedentary lifestyles, cardiovascular disease (CVD), chronic inflammatory diseases, antioxidant foods, ameliorating oxidative, Polyphenolic compounds, phenolic acids, anti-inflammatory actions
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