β-lactam Resistance in Gram-negative Pathogens Isolated from Animals

Author(s): Darren Trott.

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Design

Volume 19 , Issue 2 , 2013

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Abstract:

Although β-lactams remain a cornerstone of veterinary therapeutics, only a restricted number are actually approved for use in food-producing livestock in comparison to companion animals and wildlife. Nevertheless, both registered and off-label use of third and fourth-generation cephalosporins in livestock may have influenced the emergence of plasmid-encoded AmpC β-lactamases (pAmpC) (mainly CMY-2) and CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) in both Gram-negative pathogens and commensals isolated from animals. This presents a public health concern due to the potential risk of transfer of β-lactam-resistant pathogens from livestock to humans through food. The recent detection of pAmpC and ESBLs in multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolated from dogs has also confirmed the public health importance of β-lactam resistance in companion animals, though in this case, human-to-animal transmission may be equally as relevant as animal-to-human transmission. Identification of pAmpC and ESBLs in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from wildlife and aquaculture species may be evidence of environmental selection pressure arising from both human and veterinary use of β- lactams. Such selection pressure in animals could be reduced by the availability of reliable alternative control measures such as vaccines, bacteriophage treatments and/or competitive exclusion models for endemic production animal diseases such as colibacillosis. The global emergence and pandemic spread of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli O25-ST131 strains expressing CTX-M-15 ESBL in humans and its recent detection in livestock, companion animals and wildlife is a major cause for concern and goes against the paradigm that Gramnegative pathogens do not necessarily have to lose virulence in compensation for acquiring resistance.

Keywords: Extended-spectrum, β-lactamases, Escherichia coli, ST131, livestock, companion animals, antimicrobial resistance

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Article Details

VOLUME: 19
ISSUE: 2
Year: 2013
Page: [239 - 249]
Pages: 11
DOI: 10.2174/1381612811306020239
Price: $58

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