Prevention of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Potential Targets, Experimental Models, and Clinical Challenges
Bryan C. Fuchs,
Kenneth K. Tanabe.
Chronic fibrotic liver diseases such as viral hepatitis eventually develop liver cirrhosis, which causes
occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Given the limited therapeutic efficacy in advanced HCC, prevention of
HCC development could be an effective strategy for improving patient prognosis. However, there is still no established
therapy to meet the goal. Studies have elucidated a wide variety of molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways
involved in HCC development. Genetically-engineered or chemically-treated experimental models of cirrhosis and HCC
have been developed and shown their potential value in investigating molecular therapeutic targets and diagnostic
biomarkers for HCC prevention. In this review, we overview potential targets of prevention and currently available
experimental models, and discuss strategies to translate the findings into clinical practice.
Keywords: Animal model, chemoprevention, clinical trial, hepatocellular carcinoma, liver cirrhosis, prevention, bile duct ligation, carbon tetrachloride, connective tissue growth factor, direct acting antiviral, diethylnitrosamine, dimethylnitrosamine, extracellular matrix, epidermal growth factor, genetic hemochromatosis
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