Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignancy that affects a large number of patients worldwide,
with an increasing incidence in the United States and Europe. The therapies that are currently available for patients with
inoperable HCC have limited benefits. Although molecular targeted therapies against selected cell signaling pathways
have shown some promising results, their impact has been minimal. There is a need to identify and explore other targets
for the development of novel therapeutics. Several non-protein coding RNAs (ncRNA) have recently been implicated in
hepatocarcinogenesis and tumor progression. These ncRNA genes represent promising targets for cancer. However,
therapeutic targeting of ncRNA genes has not been employed for HCC. The use of antisense oligonucleotides and viral
vector delivery approaches have been shown to be feasible approaches to modulate ncRNA expression. HCC is an optimal
cancer to evaluate novel RNA based therapeutic approaches because of the potential of effective delivery and uptake of
therapeutic agents to the liver. In this review, we discuss selected ncRNA that could function as potential targets in HCC
treatment and outline approaches to target ncRNA expression. Future challenges include the need to achieve site-specific
targeting with acceptable safety and efficacy.
Antagomirs, HCC, LNA-antimiR, miRNA, non-coding RNA, ultraconserved, Adeno-associated Virus, Aactivator protein 1, Antigen-presenting cells, Antisense oligonucleotides, B cell lymphoma, Bcl2-modifying Factor, Cyclin dependent Kinase, Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C p57, DNA damage-inducible transcript 4, Deoxyribonucleic acid, Hepatocellular carcinoma, Locked nucleic acid
Mayo Clinic, 4500 San Pablo Boulevard, Jacksonville, FL 32224, USA.