Current Cancer Drug Targets

Ruiwen Zhang 
Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center
1300 Coulter Drive
Amarillo, TX 79106
USA

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mTOR as a Potential Target for the Prevention and Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Author(s): Laura Elisa Buitrago-Molina, Arndt Vogel.

Abstract:

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a global health problem and responsible for up to 500.000 deaths annually. It usually occurs secondary to infections with hepatitis B or C viruses, alcohol consumption, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis or hereditary liver diseases. The prognosis for patients with advanced disease is dismal; therefore, new strategies to prevent or treat this malignancy are urgently needed. Over recent years, several molecular pathways have been identified contributing to the molecular pathogenesis of this devastating disease, among them the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. mTOR is effectively inhibited by rapamycin and its derivatives such as temsirolimus and everolimus. The anti-tumor activity of rapamycin was identified more than 30 years ago in a screen performed at the National Cancer Institute, but was subsequently not developed for cancer treatment. In the 1990s, activation of the mTOR pathway was recognized in various malignancies spurring again the interest in mTOR inhibitors for anti-cancer treatment. In 2007, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the first mTOR inhibitor, temsirolimus, for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma. Currently, several clinical studies are underway to define the role of mTOR inhibitors for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. The aim of this review is to outline the role of mTOR for hepatocarcinogenesis. We will also discuss the latest preclinical and clinical data of mTOR inhibitors for the prevention and treatment of HCC.

Keywords: Hepatocellular Carcinoma, mTOR, rapamycin, RAD001, Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4E- Binding Protein 1, Fumarylacetoacetate, Fumarylacetoacetate Hydrolase, Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C Virus, Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1, Hereditary Tyrosinemia type 1, Mammalian Target of Rapamycin, mTOR Complex 1, Phosphoinositide-3 Kinase, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

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Article Details

VOLUME: 12
ISSUE: 9
Year: 2012
Page: [1045 - 1061]
Pages: 17
DOI: 10.2174/15680096112091045
Price: $58