Warfarin is an oral anticoagulant used worldwide for prevention and treatment of thromboembolic disorders.
Marked inter-individual responses to warfarin have been a mainstay challenge to optimal prescription of warfarin. More
recently, clinical pharmacogenomics studies of warfarin have categorized patients into low- and high-dose groups, in part
by associating warfarin dosing with patients’ genomic variation. It is expected that post-genomics methodologies such as
pharmacoproteomics, by analyzing differentially expressed proteins, will provide additional insights on mechanisms of
warfarin dosage variations. As thromboembolic disorders are vastly prevalent in both the developed and the resourcelimited
countries, warfarin studies in western countries should be complemented by those in the Asia-Pacific region so as
to account for global variations in the human genome and proteome, not to mention the diverse regional differences in
environmental exposures. This paper offers an introduction to personalized warfarin dosing, followed by current advances
in warfarin pharmacoproteomics. Furthermore, the biotechnology associated with pharmacoproteomics is discussed, as
well as a brief summary of approaches to warfarin therapy in the Asia-pacific region. Finally, trends on recent
miniaturization of pharmacoproteomics and other “-omics” applications in pharmacology are offered as a future outlook
in this nascent field of post-genomics medicine and personalized therapeutics.
Keywords: Asia-Pacific, biomarker, global personalized medicine, innovation convergence, LC-MS/MS, pharmacoproteomics,
public health pharmacogenomics, warfarin.
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