5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) has been considered as a green platform chemical with a wide range of
applications due to its rich chemistry and potential availability from renewable biomass resources. In recent years, considerable
efforts have been made to transform carbohydrates into HMF using homogeneous and heterogeneous acid catalysis.
In this critical review, the direct conversion of cellulose into HMF catalyzed by transition metals is described because of
the present important utility of such metals. Since solid acids are deemed less noxious than traditional liquid acids, significant
attention is given to hydrolysis, isomerization, and dehydration reactions successively carried out in a one-pot
mode from the polysaccharide using heterogeneous catalysts.
Keywords: 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), cellulose, lignocellulosic biomass, transition metals, homogeneous catalysis, heterogeneous catalysis, organic material, hydrolytic hydrogenation, hydrogenolysis, oligosaccharides, non-catalytic processes, TRS, Lignin-derived solvents, ignocellulose, sulfur-doping
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