Fospropofol is an intravenous sedative-anesthetic agent that is FDA-approved for monitored anesthesia care (MAC) sedation
in adult patients undergoing diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. As a prodrug of propofol, fospropofol’s pharmacologic activity results
from its breakdown by alkaline phosphatase and release of propofol, which is the active molecule. It exhibits a longer time to peak clinical
effect and a more prolonged action compared to propofol. Thus patients may exhibit smoother hemodynamic and respiratory depression
compared to propofol lipid emulsion bolus. Another advantage over propofol is that it does not induce a burning sensation on IV
administration. Side effects include perineal paresthesia and itching, respiratory depression, hypoxemia, hypotension, loss of consciousness,
and apnea with higher IV boluses. Therefore, current recommendations call for it to be administered only by clinicians trained in
general anesthesia, who are thus skilled in advanced airway management.
Fospropofol has a unique dosing regimen, with a standard dose for adults 18-65 years of age, and a modified dose (75% of the standard
dose) for patients > 65 years of age and for sicker adult patients whose American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status score is ≥
3. Also, the minimum and maximun IV bolus doses are body-weight adjusted to 60 and 90 kg respectively.
Available evidence demonstrates that fospropofol in MAC sedation is successful in patients undergoing esophagogastroscopy, colonoscopy
and flexible bronchoscopy. The use of fospropofol is also now being explored in many other perioperative settings. In light of current
shortages of many anesthetic drugs, whether forspropofol can take the place of propofol in ICUs and operating rooms remains to be