Opioid consumption is associated with a wide range of side effects. Potential interference of opioids with bone and joint activity
has emerged in the last few years. Opioids increase the risk of fracture, especially in elderly patients. Moreover, opioids interfere with
the endocrine system, and their chronic use is a recognized risk factor for osteoporosis. Pathogenetic mechanisms at the basis of the interference
of opioids with bones and joints are analysed in this review.
Keywords: Opioid, bone, osteoporosis, endocrine, pain, fracture, joints, side effects, elderly patients, risk factor.
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