Panicogens in Patients with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

Author(s): Christoph Muhtz, Klaus Wiedemann, Michael Kellner.

Journal Name: Current Pharmaceutical Design

Volume 18 , Issue 35 , 2012

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Abstract:

Symptom provocation has proved its worth for understanding the pathophysiology of diseases and in general for the development of new therapeutic approaches in the medical field. In the research of anxiety disorders, investigations using experimentally induced panic attacks by various agents, such as sodium lactate, carbon dioxide, cholezystokinine-tetrapetid etc., have a long tradition and allow the exploration of usually naturally occuring spontaneous psychopathological phenomena under controlled conditions. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent disorder that can develop following exposure to an extreme traumatic event. In DSM-IV it is currently classified as an anxiety disorder and shares phenomenological similarities with panic disorder. The use of panicogenic challenge tests is also an interesting neurobiological approach to learn more about the nature of PTSD and may be a possibility to develop new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of PTSD symptoms. Not only panic anxiety, but also flashbacks and other dissociative symptoms can be provoked by several panicogens in PTSD. The purpose of this review is to evaluate studies using panicogens in PTSD. Methodological short-comings of current studies and needed directions of further research are discussed.

Keywords: PTSD, panic, panicogen, flashback, lactate, CCK-4, CO2, flumazenil, m-CPP, yohimbine

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Article Details

VOLUME: 18
ISSUE: 35
Year: 2012
Page: [5608 - 5618]
Pages: 11
DOI: 10.2174/138161212803530817
Price: $58

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