The Immunosuppressive Role of Adenosine A2A Receptors in Ischemia Reperfusion Injury and Islet Transplantation

Author(s): Preeti Chhabra, Joel Linden, Peter Lobo, Mark Douglas Okusa, Kenneth Lewis Brayman.

Journal Name: Current Diabetes Reviews

Volume 8 , Issue 6 , 2012

Abstract:

Activation of adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) reduces inflammation by generally inhibiting the activation of pro-inflammatory cells, decreasing endothelial adhesion molecule expression and reducing the release of proinflammatory cytokine mediators. Numerous preclinical studies using selective A2AR agonists, antagonists, A2AR knockout as well as chimeric mice have suggested the therapeutic potential of A2AR agonists for the treatment of ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) and autoimmune diseases. This review summarizes the immunosuppressive actions of A2AR agonists in murine IRI models of liver, kidney, heart, lung and CNS, and gives details on the cellular effects of A2AR activation in neutrophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, NKT cells, T effector cells and CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ T regulatory cells. This is discussed in the context of cytokine mediators involved in inflammatory cascades. Whilst the role of adenosine receptor agonists in various models of autoimmune disease has been well-documented, very little information is available regarding the role of A2AR activation in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). An overview of the pathogenesis of T1DM as well as early islet graft rejection in the immediate peri-transplantation period offers insight regarding the use of A2AR agonists as a beneficial intervention in clinical islet transplantation, promoting islet graft survival, minimizing early islet loss and reducing the number of islets required for successful transplantation, thereby increasing the availability of this procedure to a greater number of recipients. In summary, the use of A2AR agonists as a clinical intervention in IRI and as an adjunct to clinical immunesuppressive regimen in islet transplantation is highlighted.

Keywords: Adenosine A2A Receptors, Cytokines, Inflammation, Ischemia reperfusion injury, Islet transplantation, Immunesuppression, Regulatory T cells, Islet graft survival, Type 1 diabetes, macrophages.

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Article Details

VOLUME: 8
ISSUE: 6
Year: 2012
Page: [419 - 433]
Pages: 15
DOI: 10.2174/157339912803529878
Price: $58

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