Everything Coming Out of Nothing vs. A Finite, Open and Contingent Universe

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Stephen Hawking, present occupant of the Lucasian Chair at Cambridge University, is today one of the best known theoretical cosmologists in the world. His important contributions, in collaboration ...
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A Finite, Open and Contingent Universe

Pp. 90-96 (7)

Julio A. Gonzalo

Abstract

According to today’s Cosmology the universe has a finite mass, a finite (but growing) “age”, and a finite (but growing) space-time extension. The product of Ho (Hubble’s parameter) by to (the present “age” of the universe) is at the present epoch Hotto = 0.942 ± 0.065, therefore more than 2/3 implying an open universe (k<0). A finite, open universe is contingent (it could have been otherwise) and therefore created. Quotes of Planck and Einstein on the subject are given.

Keywords:

Cosmic finiteness, cosmic mass, cosmic “age”, cosmic extension, observational evidence for an open (k<0) universe, Plank’s and Einstein’s views on the subject.

Affiliation:

Escuela Politécnica Superior, Universidad San Pablo CEU, Madrid