Urinary tract infection (UTI) is among the most common infectious diseases of humans and is the most common
nosocomial infection in the developed world. They cause significant morbidity and mortality, with approximately
150 million cases globally per year. It is estimated that 40-50% of women and 5% of men will develop a UTI in their lifetime,
and UTI accounts for more than 1 million hospitalizations and $1.6 billion in medical expenses each year in the
USA. Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) is the primary cause of UTI. This review presents an overview of the primary virulence
factors of UPEC, the major host responses to infection of the urinary tract, the emergence of specific multidrug resistant
clones of UPEC, antibiotic treatment options for UPEC-mediated UTI and the current state of vaccine strategies as
well as other novel anti-adhesive and prophylactic approaches to prevent UTI. New and emerging themes in UPEC research
are also discussed in the context of future outlooks.
Keywords: Antibiotic resistance, uropathogenic Escherichia coli, vaccine, virulence, Urinary Tract Infection, UPEC, UTI, bladder infection (cystitis), acute kidney infection (pyelonephritis), pathogens.
Rights & PermissionsPrintExport