MicroRNAs in Cancer: Small Molecules, Big Chances
MicroRNAs have come to represent a significant mechanism of post transcriptional gene regulation affecting processes
as varied as cellular differentiation, proliferation, metabolism, apoptosis, and cancer. As more miRNAs are unravelled and their
roles dissected, it has become evident that the involvement of these molecules in cancer is much more extensive than initially thought.
Several miRNA expression analyses in both haematological malignancies and solid tumors have shown that, aside significant differences
in expression between tumor and normal states, distinct tumor specific miRNA signatures exist. Additionally, the ability of miRNAs
to mediate both oncogenic and tumor suppressor functions further broadens their functional significance. In recent years, efforts
have intensified to utilize miRNAs therapeutically, especially in the context of oncomirs. As far as the impact and the success of this
approach are concerned, it is still early days, but the potential is enormous. This review focuses on the important miRNAs that have been
found to impact the tumorigenic process, how far we have come in terms of utilizing these molecules for therapy and the outlook for the
Keywords: MicroRNAs, Cancer, MMPs, Therapeutic agents, Antisense inhibition, MiRNA-mimics, Replacement therapy, Argonaute protein, Paralogous, tumorigenesis.
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