Cone snails have evolved many 1000s of small, structurally stable venom peptides (conopeptides) for prey capture
and defense. Whilst <0.1% have been pharmacologically characterised, those with known function typically target
membrane proteins of therapeutic importance, including ion channels, transporters and GPCRs. Several conopeptides reduce
pain in animals models, with one in clinical development (χ-conopeptide analogue Xen2174) and one marketed (ω-
conotoxin MVIIA or Prialt) for the treatment of severe pain. In addition to their therapeutic potential, conopeptides have
been valuable probes for studying the role of a number of key membrane proteins in normal and disease physiology.
Keywords: Conopeptides, ion channels, GPCR, Cone snails, venom peptides, target membrane proteins, membrane proteins, disease physiology, pharmacologies, peptide mimetic, globular peptide, conotoxin, complex venoms, pharmacological targets, neurological targets
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