Limb trauma can lead to the development of a complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). CRPS is a descriptive term of a variety
of different symptoms. According to the current IASP-approved criteria, human CRPS can be diagnosed if a combination of signs is
present: continuing pain and hyperalgesia, disproportionate to the initial trauma, skin temperature and colour asymmetry, sweating
asymmetry, edema, decreased range of motion, and trophic changes. The diagnosis and treatment of human CRPS can be demanding and
the pathophysiology underlying the disease is still under investigation. Immunological aspects are considered to play an important role in
the development of CRPS. The impact of elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines systemically as well as locally, increased neurogenic inflammation
and auto-antibodies in the pathophysiological development of CRPS are discussed in this review.
Keywords: CRPS, cytokines, neuropeptides, autoimmunity, Limb trauma, pain, hyperalgesia, trauma, sweating, edema.
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