The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) gene is an immediate early gene, rapidly transcribed in a variety of cell types
following exposure to a broad range of pathogens and signals of inflammation and stress. Regulation of TNF gene expression
at the transcriptional level is cell type- and stimulus-specific, involving epigenetic mechanisms or miRNAs. A better
knowledge of the molecular mechanisms that control TNF gene regulation and TNF signalling will provide deeper understanding
of the initiation and development of apoptotic and inflammatory processes triggered by TNF cytokine in the gut.
The described efforts to embed TNF in clinical treatment regiments reflect its attractive effectiveness in killing tumor
cells. Whether the described strategies will achieve the success of incorporating TNF in lower gastrointestinal tract therapy
for inflammatory diseases and cancer remains to be determined.
Keywords: TNF signalling, apoptosis, colorectal tumor cells, radiotherapy, intestinal epithelial cells, immune cells, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), cancer, Apoptosis, cytotoxic therapy
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