A growing array of synthetic bone regeneration scaffolds has been in use over the last century. These scaffolds
aim to provide a three dimensional substrate for bone cells to populate on and to function appropriately.
The majority of commercially-available scaffolds are based on calcium sulphate salts, calcium phosphate salts, or composites
of the two. The mechanical and biological properties of these scaffolds are a result of the properties of the constituent
materials and their ratio in the composite.
This review addresses the mechanical and biological characteristics and provides an up-to-date summary of the clinical
data available about the use of these calcium-based scaffolds. It will also assess the benefit of using stem cell technology
along with this type of scaffolds. This article links between the basic science evidence and the clinical outcomes and details
the commercially-available options.
Keywords: Bone healing, bone regeneration, calcium phosphate, calcium sulphate, scaffold, stem cell therapy, bone cells, bone scaffolds, bone auto-grafts.
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