Atopic dermatitis is a chronic allergic inflammatory disease of the skin. Its pathophysiology involves an orchestrated
sequence of allergic provocation by IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated Th2 responses to allergens. Allergen
sensitization precedes the immunopathogenesis. Th2 cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-5 play a key role in both the sensitization
and effector phases of allergic skin inflammation. Recently, the roles of new cytokines including IL-16, IL-17, IL-21,
IL-22, IL-23, IL-27, IL-31, IL-33, IL-35 and thymus stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), and Th2 polarization in the immunopathogenesis
of skin inflammation and physically injured skin have been described, in addition to roles for IL-4, IL-
5, IL-9, IL-13, IFN-γ and TGF-β. Sensitization occurs via the skin for aeroallergen including house dust mites and superantigens
and through the gastrointestinal tract for food allergens. Alternatively, food allergens can be sensitized through
skin. Atopic dermatitis is described under the structure of sensitization phase and effector phase in this review. Especially,
the clinically effective applications of cytokines in AD and relevant patents are updated in this review.
Keywords: Atopic dermatitis, cytokine, effector phase, sensitization phase, Th2 polarization, Blood cytokine levels , Dendritic cells , Langerhan’s cells, IgE production, Aeroallergen.
Rights & PermissionsPrintExport