There is a pressing need to find an efficacious HIV vaccine and a concomitant need for the recruitment of
participants in efficacy trials. These efforts are hampered, however, by a gap between what respondents say they will do
regarding research participation, and whether they actually enroll. The current paper examines the size of this gap and
proposes psychological reasons for it. Some reasons include the temporal stability of the intention, the time taken to
consider its ramifications and plans to deal with them, and the social forces that affect the intention. From this analysis,
recommendations are offered to improve recruitment efforts and the predictive power of expressions of willingness to
Keywords: HIV vaccine trials, psychological factors, willingness to participate, WTP, behavior, intention, implementation, enrollment, recruitment, single-act.
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