Base Excision Repair: Contribution to Tumorigenesis and Target in Anticancer Treatment Paradigms
J. L. Illuzzi,
D. M. Wilson III.
Cancer treatments often lose their effectiveness due to the development of multiple drug resistance. Thus, identification of key
proteins involved in the tumorigenic process and the survival mechanism(s), coupled with the design of novel therapeutic compounds
(such as small molecule inhibitors), are essential steps towards the establishment of improved anticancer treatment strategies. DNA repair
pathways and their proteins have been exposed as potential targets for combinatorial anticancer therapies that involve DNA-interactive
cytotoxins, such as alkylating agents, because of their central role in providing resistance against DNA damage. In addition, an
understanding of the tumor-specific genetics and associated DNA repair capacity has allowed research scientists and clinicians to begin
to devise more targeted treatment strategies based on the concept of synthetic lethality. In this review, the repair mechanisms, as well as
the links to cancer progression and treatment, of three key proteins that function in the base excision repair pathway, i.e. APE1, POLβ,
and FEN1, are discussed.
Keywords: AP or abasic endonuclease, DNA polymerase, flap endonuclease, carcinogenesis, repair inhibitor, Cancer treatments, drug resistance, key proteins, tumorigenic process, survival mechanism(s)
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