TNF α Signaling Beholds Thalidomide Saga: A Review of Mechanistic Role of TNF-α Signaling Under Thalidomide

Author(s): Syamantak Majumder, Sree Rama Chaitanya Sreedhara, Santanu Banerjee, Suvro Chatterjee.

Journal Name: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry

Volume 12 , Issue 13 , 2012

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Abstract:

Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a pleiotropic inflammatory cytokine. The cytokine possesses both growth stimulating properties and growth inhibitory processes, and it appears to have self regulatory properties as well. Agents like etanercept and infliximab showed beneficial effects against rheumatoid arthritis by modulationg TNF-α proteins, however, these agents are largely unable to penetrate the blood-brain barrier, which severely limits their use in different conditions. Thalidomide, an inhibitor of TNF-α protein synthesis is readily capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier and thus thalidomide and its analogs are excellent candidates for use in determining the potential value of anti-TNF-α therapies in a variety of diseases. Thalidomide blocks TNF-α expression by different possible mechanisms. Down regulation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB), an essential transcription factor for TNF and other cytokines under thalidomide treatment leads to reduction in the TNF-α expression. Additionally, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), an adapter protein regulates the expression of TNF under thalidomide treatment. Thalidomide treatment also leads to destruction of TNF-α mRNA thus, reducing the total expression of TNF-α protein. Thalidomide also targets reactive oxygen species (ROS) and α1- acid glycoprotein (AGP) to regulate TNF-α. In the present review, we discuss different possible mechanism that regulates TNF-α under thalidomide treatment. Additionally, we suggest novel strategies for the future targeting combination therapies of thalidomide and its analogs with different other anti-inflammatory drug to curb TNF-α associated diseases.

Keywords: Cytokines, inflammation, myeloid differentiation factor 88, nuclear factor kappa B, thalidomide, Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), rheumatoid arthritis, blood-brain barrier, thalidomide treatment, TNF-α associated diseases

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Article Details

VOLUME: 12
ISSUE: 13
Year: 2012
Page: [1456 - 1467]
Pages: 12
DOI: 10.2174/156802612801784443
Price: $58

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